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分析高中英语长、难句的技巧
教育宝/2017.06.27
浓缩观点
1、带有较多成分的简单句。任务:a.请勾画出句子主谓,在翻译句子。b.判断非谓语动词充当的成分。1)Havingchosenfamilytelevisionprogramsandwomen’smagazines,thetoothpastemarketer,forinstance,mustselecttheexacttele

 

1、带有较多成分的简单句。

任务:a.请勾画出句子主谓,在翻译句子。 b. 判断非谓语动词充当的成分。

1) Having chosen family television programs and women’s magazines,the toothpaste marketer,for instance,must select the exact television programs and stations as well as the specific women’s magazines to be used.

例如,决定选择家庭电视节目和妇女杂志后,牙膏经销商还必须挑选出要用的确切的电视节目和电视台,以及那些具体的妇女杂志。


2、含有多个简单句的并列句。

任务:a. 请勾画出并列连词 b. 勾画出所有分句的主谓,在翻译句子。

2)In the 1970s he was a surgeon at Yale,had a wonderful wife and five beautiful children,but he was terribly unhappy.在20世纪70年代,他在耶鲁当外科医生,有位出色的太太和5个漂亮的孩子,但他那时过得却很不开心。

3)Discrimination isn’t their only concern;almost everyone testing positive for the Huntington’s gene(基因) develops symptoms during middle age,and doctors can do nothing to help.

担心受到歧视并不是他们唯一的忧虑,几乎所有遗传性亨廷顿病基因检测呈阳性的人在中年时症状都会显现出来,而医生对此却无能为力。


3、包含多个从句的复合句。

任务:a. 请用不同形式勾画出所有从句 b. 圈出从句修饰的词,并判断从句性质,在翻译句子。

4)I can’t live in fear of the possibility that as the earth’s population grows and we use more and more of our nonrenewable(不能再生的) resources,our children may have to lead poorer lives.

我不能总是生活在对这种可能性的忧虑中:由于地球上人口的不断增长,由于我们正在消耗掉越来越多的非再生资源,我们的孩子可能不得不过着更加贫穷的生活。

5)However,those of us who are parents of children in this age group know that such offers(机会) are relatively rare and that many liberal-arts students(文科生) graduate with the belief that the prospective(预期的) workplace may not have a place for them. 然而,我们这些有这个年龄段孩子的家长们都知道,这样的机会少得可怜;我们也知道,许多文科毕业生认为未来的就业市场没有他们的一席之地。


4. 并列句中包含复合句。

任务:a. 请勾画出并列连词, b. 勾画出并列分句中的从句。 c.圈出从句修饰的词,并判断从句性质。

6) I have known changes for the better and changes for the worse,but I have never questioned the fact that whether I liked it or not,change was unavoidable.我经历过好的变化,也经历过坏的变化,但是我从来没有怀疑过这样一个事实,即不管我喜欢与否,变化总是不可避免的。


5、含有多个插入成分或分隔成分的句子。

任务:a. 请将插入成分划掉,再来翻译句子。

7)His journey to the e-mail hell began innocently enough when, as chairman of Computer Associates International,a software company,he first heard how quickly his employees had accepted their new electronic-mail system.他在电子邮件的地狱之旅是糊里糊涂开始的。作为国际计算机联合公司这家软件公司的董事长,他当时还是第一次听说他的雇员们是多么快地就接受了他们公司的新的电子邮件系统。


1、首先确定句子是简单句、复合句或并列句。

2、如果是简单句,首先确定主谓结构;接着确定次要成分。

3、如果是并列句,首先应找出并列连词并把全句分解为若干个分句,有时候并列分句中含有复合句。

4、如果是复合句,首先找出连词并确定主句;然后确定从句的性质,即该从句在句中修饰什么词语或结构;最后整体考虑全句大意,尤其要注意对修饰语的准确判断,有时候从句中包含着另一从句。

5、有分隔成分或插入语的,可以跳读分隔符号之间的内容,过后再来理解。


  在分析句子成分时,还应特别注意下列几点:

1、是否有同位语和插入语。

2、是否有省略、倒装和分隔等现象。

3、替代词的所指对象。

4、在从句多的句子中,从句中又包含从句的现象。

5、同时含有并列句和复合句时,理清句子层次。


1. It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers, although just about anyone who works in an office can tell you that when e-mail is introduced, the printers start working overtime.

由于因特网的使用,计算所使用的纸张的数量是很难的,然而几乎任何在办公室工作的人能告诉你,当引进电子邮件后,打印机就开始超时工作。


2. Mostly borrowed from English and Chinese, these terms are often changed into forms no longer understood by native speakers.

这些术语,主要从英语和汉语引入,经常会变成不再被说本族语的人们理解的形式。


3.Tales from Animal Hospital will delight all fans of the programme and anyone who was a lively interest in their pet, whether it be a cat 、dog or snake!

来自动物医院(这个电视节目)的故事(这本书),将使这个电视节目的爱好者以及

对无论是猫、狗还是蛇这类宠物有浓厚兴趣的任何人感到高兴


4.With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence, according to Intermountain Therapy Animals(ITA) in salt Lake City.

据盐湖城的ITA的观点,闪烁的棕色眼睛,摇着尾巴,并有无条件的爱心,狗能成为无判断力的(忠实的)听者,这是刚开始搞阅读的小孩所需要的。


5. Discovered by the Portuguese admiral of the same name in 1506, and settled in 1810, the island belongs to Great Britain and has a population of a few hundred. (NMET2003. A篇)

这个岛屿,于1506年被同名的葡萄牙上将发现,在1810年有人居住,现在属于英国,人口数有几百人。


6. They had no connection with the outside world for more than a thousand years, giving them plenty of time to build more than 1000 huge stone figures, called moat, for which the island is most famous.(NMET2003.A篇)

他们已有一千多年与外界没有联系,这给他们充足的时间来修建1000多座巨大的石像,被称为莫艾,因为有这个东西这个岛屿极其出名。


7.Whereas a woman’s closest female friend might be the first to tell her to leave a failing marriage, it wasn’t unusual to hear a man say he didn’t know his friend’s marriage was in serious trouble until he appeared one night asking if he could sleep on the sofa.

一个女人最亲密的女性朋友可能是第一个告诉她离开一次失败的婚姻;而听见一个

男人说直到他的朋友一天晚上问他是否可以睡在他家的沙发上他才知道他朋友的婚姻已非常糟糕,这是很平常的。

简析:夹杂多种语法结构not unusual=usual; not…until…,直到…才…。


8.Whereas(但是) a woman’s closest female friend might be the first to tell her to leave a failing marriage, it wasn’t unusual to hear a man say he didn’t know his friend’s marriage was in serious trouble until he appeared one night asking if he could sleep on the sofa.(NMET2001. E篇)

一个女人最亲密的女性朋友可能是第一个告诉她离开一次失败的婚姻;而听见一个

男人说直到他的朋友一天晚上问他是否可以睡在他家的沙发上他才知道他朋友的婚姻已非常糟糕,这是很平常的。

简析:夹杂多种语法结构not unusual=usual; not…until…,直到…才…。


9.Still, he could not help thinking that if anything should happen, the nearest person he contact by radio, unless there was a ship nearby, would be on an island 885 miles away.

他禁不住寻思起来,要是果真有什么意外,除非附近有条船,他用无线电能联系上的最近的人远在885英里以外的岛上。


10. How could I ever get him to finish unloading the car without screaming at me and making a scene in front of the other girls, who I would have to spend the rest of the year with? (NMET2000)

我怎么才能让父亲卸完车上的行李而不向我大喊大叫,在其他女孩子面前出洋相呢?我还要和这些女孩一起度过以后的日子。


11. The measure of a man’s real character is what he would do if he knew he would never be found out.(NMET 96)

衡量一个人真正品质的标准是看如果他知道他不会被别人发现的情况下他会做些什么事。


12.Such tasks are generally important in their outcome,which only adds to the pressure to do good job,and yet their very complexity makes it difficult to know just where or how to begin.

这些任务的结果通常都很重要,这为做好工作增加了压力,然而这些任务的复杂性使人很难知道该从何处开始和怎样开始。这是一个并列复合句。在第一个并列分句中,有一个非限制性定语从句,但它不修饰outcome,而是修饰前面的整个分句。后一并列分句中有一个复合宾语结构,用it作形式宾语,实际宾语为带有连接副词的  不定式短语。


13.Today it is not unusual for a student,even if he works part time at college and full time during the summer,to have $5,000 in loans(贷款) after four years—loans that he must start to repay within one year after graduation.

一个学生即使在上课期间做兼职工作,在暑假期间做全职工作,四年下来他仍会欠下5,000美元学费贷款,而这笔钱必须在毕业后一年内开始偿还。这样的事现在已经是很平常了。


分析本句应抓住其关键结构:it is not unusual for a student to have $5,000 in loans after four years。it是形式主语,实际主语为由for引出逻辑主语的不定式结构for a student to have $5,000 in loans after four years。这里应注意not unusual是双重否定,实际表示肯定含义。让步状语从句even if he works part time at college and full time during the summer被插在不定式结构中。破折号引出带形容词从句的同位语。由于for到句末是一个完整的内容,因此翻译中将他们连在一起,而把it is not unusual分译。


14.What emerges(浮现) is a picture of an environment where the emphasis is on managing the technology as it spies on people doing their jobs,rather than promoting quality service to customers and providing a fair workplace.

这就勾画出了这样一种工作环境,在这种环境中,只重视科技手段对员工工作的监视作用,而不考虑提高客户服务质量和提高公平的工作场所。


本句的主谓结构是What emerges is a picture,主语What emerges本身即为一个从句。在说明picture的介词短语中还有一个定语从句修饰environment,在这个定语从句中又有一个as引导的状语从句修饰managing,介词on后有三个动词-ing形式短语作其宾语,分别为:managing,promoting和providing。


15. Without this knowledge we can appreciate only the formal content of Egyptian art, and we will fail to understand why it was produced or the concepts that shaped it and caused it to adopt its distinctive forms.

本句是由两个并列句构成的,Without this knowledge 是状语,主句是we can appreciate only the formal content of Egyptian art, and we will fail to understand why or the concepts,就是说我们只能在形式上理解埃及的艺术,不能理解为什么埃及艺术会是这样和内容会是这样的,在why后面的从句和concepts后面各有一个句子来具体讲它们的内容,频繁出现的and扰乱了同学们对于句子结构的把握。concepts后面 that引导的 shaped it and caused it to adopt its distinctive forms.都是用来修饰concepts的。在第二个并列分句中宾语非常长,使用了层层追加修饰的方法,使句子变得难于理解。

译文:

没有这些知识,我们对于古埃及艺术的欣赏就仅仅局限在形式上,而无法理解这种艺术为什么会被创造出来,以及决定艺术品采用某种特殊形式的内在理念。